Germany’s policy and the diplomatic agenda of Romanian neutrality (1914-1916). The Prospect of a plan for an alliance with Sweden

Claudiu-Lucian Topor

“Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Romania, claudiulucian@yahoo.com

Acknowledgements
This paper has been presented at the Second International Conference on Nordic and Baltic Studies in Romania: Black Sea and Baltic Sea Regions: Confluences, influences and crosscurrents in the modern and contemporary ages hosted by the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies, Târgoviste, May 20-22, 2011.
This work was supported by the Human Resources Development Operational Programe within the following project “Development of the capacity for innovation and increasing the impact of post-doctoral research programs”. “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iaşi, POSDRU/89/1.5/S/49944.

Abstract:
In the summer of 1915, concerned about Italy’s entry into the war in alliance with the Entente powers yet encouraged by the victories of its armies on the Eastern Front, the German diplomacy attempted to encourage Sweden and Romania to abandon their neutrality in order to give a decisive blow to Russia. In several reports dispatched from Berlin, Alexandru Beldiman, the envoy to Germany who was also Romania’s representative in the Scandinavian countries, raised the possibility of Sweden’s entry into the war on the German side. After he had identified Russia as the common historical enemy of the two countries, the Romanian diplomat suggested forging an alliance under the leadership of Germany. A strong alliance was thought to ensure Sweden’s ascendancy in Finland and the Baltic states, and Romania’s supremacy in the East at the Black Sea. Although this plan was rejected by the liberal government, Beldiman’s initiative in a period of neutrality remains an alternative in the Romanian political circles to Entente supremacy.

Rezumat:
În vara anului 1915, îngrijorată de intrarea Italiei în război în alianţă cu puterile Antantei, dar încurajată de victoriile armatelor de pe Frontul de Est, diplomaţia germană încearcă să determine Suedia şi România să renunţe la neutralitate pentru a da o lovitură decisivă Rusiei. În mai multe rapoarte trimise de la Berlin, Alexandru Beldiman, ministrul care reprezenta România în Germania şi pe lângă statele scandinave, invocă posibilitatea intrării Suediei in război de partea Imperiului German. După ce identifică Rusia ca duşmanul istoric comun al celor două ţări, diplomatul român sugerează posibilitatea încheierii unei alianţe sub conducerea Germaniei, o ligă puternică ce urma să asigure preponderenţa Suediei în Finlanda şi în provinciile baltice şi supremaţia României la Marea Neagră. În final, acest plan a fost respins de către guvernul liberal, dar iniţiativa ministrului român la Berlin rămâne o alternativă la supremaţia Antantei în cercurile politice româneşti din perioada neutralităţii.

Keywords: neutrality; alliance; diplomacy; Romania; Sweden; World War I

https://balticnordic.hypotheses.org/files/2018/12/09.-Topor.pdf