About Pan-Scandinavianism. Reference points in the 19th century (1815-1864)

Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea
“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University in Iaşi, E-mail: mcghenghea2010@yahoo.com

Acknowledgements
This paper is based on the presentation made at the Fifth international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania A piece of culture, a culture of peace, re-imaging European communities in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea regions, hosted by Valahia University of Târgovişte and the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies, August 17-19, 2014. Supported by EEA Grants, contract no 4/22.07.2014.

Abstract:
At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th a sense of solidarity shared by the people of the Northern Europe appeared: Pan-Scandinavianism. First it had a certain impact at cultural and spiritual levels. In a narrower sense the term was used when referring to the possibility of creating a political union between the Nordic kingdoms during the middle decades of the 19th century.
Although it seemed that the political side of Pan-Scandianvianism had a good chance of accomplishing itself, especially after the Three Years War (1848-1851), the international context from the period that followed did not favour that plan. The collapse of the political Pan-Scandinavianism was in 1864 – the Second Schleswig-Holstein War. Sweden-Norway failed in helping Denmark against Prussia and Austria, despite the fact that King Karl XV was an advocate of Pan-Scandinavianism. Leaving this aspect aside, there were other internal difficulties of the Nordic states that Pan-Scandinavianism had to face, including the emerging nationalism. On a broader view, Pan-Scandinavianism appeared as an opponent of Panslavism and Pangermanism. Thus the dream of a unified Scandinavia was abandoned in the 19th century and Pan-Scandinavianism focused on cultural, scientific and economic cooperation.

Rezumat:
La sfârşitul secolului al XVIII-lea şi la începutul celui de-al XIX-lea a apărut un sentiment de solidaritate împărtăşit de locuitorii Europei nordice: panscandinavismul. Mai întâi a avut un anumit impact la nivel cultural şi spiritual. Într-un sens mai restrâns, termenul a fost utilizat atunci când se făcea referire la posibilitatea creării unei uniuni politice între regatele nordice în deceniile de la jumătatea secolului al XIX-lea.
Deşi se părea că latura politică a panscandinavismului avea o şansă de a se concretiza, mai ales după Războiul de trei ani (1848-1851), contextul internaţional al perioadei care a urmat nu a favorizat acest plan. Colapsul panscandinavismului politic s-a produs în 1864 – al doilea război pentru ducatele Schleswig şi Holstein. Suedia-norvegia nu a reuşit să ajute Danemarca împotriva Prusiei şi Austriei, în ciuda faptului că regele Karl al XV-lea era un susţinător al panscandinavismului. Trecând peste aceste aspecte, au existat dificultăţi interne al statelor nordice cărora panscandinavismul a trebuit să le facă faţă, inclusiv afirmarea naţionalismului. Într-un plan mai larg, panscandinavismul a apărut ca un adversar al panslavismului şi al pangermanismului. Astfel visul unei Scandinavii unificate a fost abandonat în secolul al XIX-lea, iar panscandinavismul s-a axat pe cooperarea culturală, ştiinţifică şi economică.

Keywords: Pan-Scandinavianism, political unity, Schleswig-Holstein, nationalism, defensive formula.

https://balticnordic.hypotheses.org/files/2018/12/12.GhengheaM.pdf